When Israel Stood Up to Washington

As U.S.-Israel tensions climb to unfamiliar heights, they recall a prior round of tensions nearly thirty years ago, when Menachem Begin and Ronald Reagan were in charge. In contrast to Binyamin Netanyahu’s repeated apologies, Begin adopted a quite different approach.

The sequence of events started with a statement from Syrian dictator Hafiz al-Asad that he would not make peace with Israel “even in a hundred years,” Begin responded by making the Golan Heights part of Israel, terminating the military administration that had been governing that territory from the time Israeli forces seized it from Syria in 1967. Legislation to this effect easily passed Israel’s parliament on Dec. 14, 1981.

This move came, however, just two weeks after the signing of a U.S.-Israel Strategic Cooperation Agreement, prompting much irritation in Washington. At the initiative of Secretary of State Alexander Haig, the U.S. government suspended that just-signed agreement. One day later, on Dec. 20, Begin summoned Samuel Lewis, the U.S. ambassador in Tel Aviv, for a dressing-down.

Yehuda Avner, a former aide to Begin, provides atmospherics and commentary on this episode at “When Washington bridled and Begin fumed.” As he retells it, “The prime minister invited Lewis to take a seat, stiffened, sat up, reached for the stack of papers on the table by his side, put them on his lap and [adopted] a face like stone and a voice like steel.” Begin began with “a thunderous recitation of the perfidies perpetrated by Syria over the decades.” He ended with what he called “a very personal and urgent message” to President Reagan (available at the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs website).

“Three times during the past six months, the U.S. Government has ‘punished’ Israel,” Begin began. He enumerated those three occasions: the destruction of the Iraqi nuclear reactor, the bombing of the PLO headquarters in Beirut, and now the Golan Heights law. Throughout this exposition, according to Avner, Lewis interjected but without success: “Not punishing you, Mr. Prime Minister, merely suspending …,” “Excuse me, Mr. Prime Minister, it was not …,” “Mr. Prime Minister, I must correct you …,” and “This is not a punishment, Mr. Prime Minister, it’s merely a suspension until …”

Fully to vent his anger, Begin drew on a century of Zionism:

What kind of expression is this – “punishing Israel”? Are we a vassal state of yours? Are we a banana republic? Are we youths of fourteen who, if they don’t behave properly, are slapped across the fingers? Let me tell you who this government is composed of. It is composed of people whose lives were spent in resistance, in fighting and in suffering. You will not frighten us with “punishments.” He who threatens us will find us deaf to his threats. We are only prepared to listen to rational arguments. You have no right to “punish” Israel – and I protest at the very use of this term.

In his most stinging attack on the United States, Begin challenged American moralizing about civilian casualties during the Israeli attack on Beirut:

You have no moral right to preach to us about civilian casualties. We have read the history of World War II and we know what happened to civilians when you took action against an enemy. We have also read the history of the Vietnam war and your phrase “body-count.”

Referring to the U.S. decision to suspend the recently signed agreement, Begin announced that “The people of Israel has lived 3,700 years without a memorandum of understanding with America – and it will continue to live for another 3,700.” On a more mundane level, he cited Haig having stated on Reagan’s behalf that the U.S. government would purchase $200 million worth of Israeli arms and other equipment “Now you say it will not be so. This is therefore a violation of the President’s word. Is it customary? Is it proper?”

Recalling the recent fight in the U.S. Senate over the decision to sell AWACS planes to Saudi Arabia, Begin noted that it “was accompanied by an ugly campaign of anti-Semitism.” By way of illustration, he mentioned three specifics: the slogans “Begin or Reagan?” and “We should not let the Jews determine the foreign policy of the United States,” plus aspersions that senators like Henry Jackson, Edward Kennedy, Robert Packwood, and Rudy Boschwitz “are not loyal citizens.”

Responding to demands that the Golan Heights law be rescinded, Begin sourced the very concept of rescission to “the days of the Inquisition” and reminded Lewis that:

Our forefathers went to the stake rather than “rescind” their faith. We are not going to the stake. Thank God. We have enough strength to defend our independence and to defend our rights. … please be kind enough to inform the secretary of state that the Golan Heights Law will remain valid. There is no force on earth that can bring about its rescission.

The session ended without Lewis responding. As Avner recounts, “Faced with this unyielding barrage, which to the ambassador seemed somewhat hyperbolic and, in part, even paranoid, he saw no point in carrying on, so he took his leave.”


(1) Late 1981 marked the nadir of U.S.-Israel relations during the Reagan administration. In particular, strategic cooperation made headway in subsequent years.

(2) The ministry website calls Begin’s blast “an unprecedented move”; to which I add, it was not just unprecedented but also unrepeated.

(3) Begin’s sense of destiny, combined with his oratorical grandeur impelled him to respond to current policy differences by invoking 3,700 years of Jewish history, the Inquisition, the Vietnam War, and American antisemitism. In the process, he changed the terms of the argument.

(4) Notwithstanding intense American aggravation with Begin, his blistering attack improved Israeli pride and standing.

(5) Politicians in other countries quite frequently attack the United States. Indeed, Hamid Karzai, the president of Afghanistan, did so last week. But his purpose – to convince his countrymen that he is not, in fact, a kept politician – differed fundamentally from Begin’s of asserting Israel’s dignity.

(6) It is difficult to imagine any other Israeli politician, Binyamin Netanyahu included, who would dare to pull off Begin’s verbal assault.

(7) Yet that might be just what Israel needs.

Mr. Pipes (www.DanielPipes.org) is director of the Middle East Forum and a distinguished visiting fellow at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University.

  • Carson Johnson

    Nice to see you're taking the side of another country against your own. And you have the nerve to accuse others of being "anti-American"? What a laugh.

    • http://intensedebate.com/people/Underzog Underzog

      Evil and appeasement should be opposed.

      Barack Hussein Obama is the enemy of Israel; the enemy of America; and the enemy of any country that is truly fighting for its freedom and survival. He needs some of what Begin gave those decades ago.

      • Ze-ev ben Yehudah

        Indeed,President Barack Hussein Obama is not only a danger to
        America but also to the remnants of the so called free world.The
        left is bereft.And yes;Menachem Begin was a" mentsch" Who wanted
        the best for his Isreal and his people.
        He had ;wich in Spanish sounds so very strong; "cojones" balls.
        And 30 yrs ago is a long time! I therefore wonder how Mr Ariel Sharon
        would have stood up against the American puppet on a string Mr Barack
        Hussein Obama and his cronies.Anyway he is half way his term.
        May it be only those 4 yrs.The free world can't take much more of the fellah.

    • Democracy First

      So, rather than deal with Pipes' comments, you'd rather attack ad hominem style. Then again, what else can you do when he makes so much sense?

    • Raymond in DC

      Ah, yes – the "dual loyalty" libel, right out of the block. Carson is obviously too obtuse to recognize that the US has adapted a reckless strategy and, as a result, its own interests in the mideast are at risk. Only fools and losers appease the enemy. One can speculate how much Obama is "channeling" Wright and Khalidi, but he is clearly following his ideological instincts in his treatment of Israel. That will only bring war closer, to the detriment of *both* Israel and the US.

    • Liny

      Your ignorance of Israel being a soverign nation is apparent by your comment. Obama and Hillary are ignorant also, so you must be one of their staunch supporters. Let Isreal rule itself. They've been doing it for thousands of years without Obama's help.

      • trickyblain

        What's stopping them?

    • Susan Somerville

      Stop the braying and open up your brain, Carson Johnson. Somehow, you've missed the entire point of Daniel Pipe's article.
      Thank G-d that Menachem Begin knew his history, the mentality of Samuel Lewis and those he represented, and also that he, Begin, had both enough dignity and oratorical force to state Israel's case the way it could benefit Israel. Chalavai, that Netanyahu can learn from Begin's abilities!

    • IamJoseph

      An honest disagreement beats a dishonest agreement.

      When one does not forget their motherland and their mothers – it means they will also honor any country which houses them – your line of reasoning is not a valid one. This is why Islamic cells are being unearthed almost weekly in America and Europe – and Israel is a light unto the nations.

      America was discovered by a Jew; the US Constitution is based on the Hebrew laws, Jewish minds made America a superpower – and a Jew penned the hymn Gd Bless America. Which other peoples can match that?

  • William Smart

    Menachem Begin was a legendary terrorist, of whom numerous Jewish Americans (including Albert Einstein) said:

    … Before irreparable damage is done by way of financial contributions … the American public must be informed as to the record and objectives of Mr. Begin … until recently … openly preached the doctrine of the Fascist state.

    … Within the Jewish community they have preached an admixture of ultranationalism, religious mysticism, and racial superiority. Like other Fascist parties they have been used to break strikes, and have themselves pressed for the destruction of free trade unions. In their stead they have proposed corporate unions on the Italian Fascist model. During the last years of sporadic anti-British violence, the IZL and Stern groups inaugurated a reign of terror in the Palestine Jewish community. Teachers were beaten up for speaking against them, adults were shot for not letting their children join them. By gangster methods, beatings window-smashing, and wide-spread robberies, the terrorists intimidated the population and exacted a heavy tribute.

    • IamJoseph

      Terrorism does not apply when defending one's country and one's life. Israel was within its own historical land, defending against a host of crimes perpetrated by Christian Europe and Islam: the corruption of the Balfour, the invention of Pretend Palestineans, the barring of Jews to their land fleeing the Holocaust with the white paper, and serial 2-states till there is none:


      You are confused what constitutes terrorism and existentialism.

  • AntiFascist18

    For the Neo-Nazis Carson and William,

    Wake up and smell your own manure, boys. Obama is a traitor to America.

    Right now he is even talking about slicing our nuclear deterrent even though the world is much less safer ever since he occupied the White House than it ever was during the terms of President Bush. But hey, for little Fascists like you – yeah, Willie, you described yourself pretty well in your diatribe, it will always be the Jews.

    Of course Cowards like the two of you never got your combat boots muddied in Afghanistan or Iraq, you were too busy sitting in David Duke's pew of worms and urine, just like Obama was with his boyfriend Wright.

    As for Begin being a terrorist, Carson? Well what does that make you? Especially when Obie's lips are kissing the butt of Bill Ayers?

    The two of you are garden variety anti-Semites and probably hate America as much as Obama does.

    • guest

      Never in my life have I EVER been a "conspiracy theorist." I was always the academic on the other side. But I have come to see Obama as the MOST dangerous individual to Western security who has ever inhabited the White House. His tactic is to totally BASH what were America's previous allies (Poland, Honduras, Czechoslovakia, Israel) while not demanding a SINGLE thing from the ENTIRE ARAB world. As whacky as it may sound, I believe he is a Trojan Horse. He acquiesces to X number seemingly "anti-terror" acts while attempting to TOTALLY undermine Israel's security and with a vicious set of rantings, has whipped up even MORE anti-Israel/Jew hatred in the Islamic world as a result. He has also BLOCKED Israel from receiving certain sophisticated weapons needed for defense while having given a green light to a number of surrounding Arab regimes to buy these weapons. He has given Iran a green light to race towards nuclear weapons. Unbelievable. And yet, not to me. I saw right through this guy and NEVER felt I could sense any core values in him whatsoever. I sense an anger in him. One of his FIRST acts was to appoint THREE tax cheats in a row. Geithner got through, but Daschle and a woman withdrew the day the N.Y. Times finally came out with the FIRST really critical editorial. The "Great Uniter" has created an America that is MORE divided than I can ever remember it being. I am fortunate to live in Canada and we watch this monstrous administration with some trepidation. It is erratic and has no discernible agenda. Edicts are decreed and when they hit a brick wall, it is always because the public "just doesn't really understand." Meanwhile, the Republic is amputated, little by little. My hope is that you Americans will rise en mass to get rid of this dangerous Cardboard mouthpiece. Good luck to all…

  • Jack Ajzenberg

    Bravo Dr. Pipes and thank you for anchoring us in the historical ballast of Begin's fierce patriotism and love of Israel and its people. And of course, the numbnuts that can read accuse you of dual loyalties or throw the fascist slur at Begin invoking that great egalitarian idiot Einstein as proof.
    Often you are ahead of the curve. You were one of the first to recognize the perils of rapprochement and alliance with Turkey.
    We will survive, G d willing, the curse of Obama as he is after all a fellow of little mettle and no character who speaks well when he is prepared. It is his handlers and coterie of advisors huddled behind the curtain, stage left and right that we must be on guard against.

  • http://intensedebate.com/people/Sherylabbey Sherylabbey

    Want the ultimate insider's account* of Israel's diplomatic history? Read The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership by Yehuda Avner, former speechwriter and personal aide to Israeli Prime Ministers Begin, Peres, Rabin, Meir and Eshkol.
    *–The Jerusalem Post

  • http://intensedebate.com/people/Underzog Underzog

    If the Jew cringes as Bibi seems to be doing, that is what invites anti-Semitism.

    Anti-Semites are sadistic bullies. It is fun for them to see the Jew cringe. If the Jew doesn't cringe so much, the anti-Semite will back off after awhile and pursue other things.

  • Belladonna Rogers

    Another brilliant, incisive post by Daniel Pipes. He helps us to see with clarity the present by illuminating the past. His insight, his mind and his profound understanding of the currents running through America's relations with the Middle East are lights unto our world.
    I agree with Underzog and as for Antifascist18, he is right on in his characterization of Carson and William, the kinds of hate-filled vermin who, like moths to the flame, can be depended upon to gravitate to wherever Daniel Pipes writes—or lectures—and spew their pathetic, ignorant garbage. They're like ants at a picnic, to choose another simile from the insect world (which is, of course, an insult to bugs everywhere)—a pesky part of reading great minds and courageous analysts, of whom Daniel Pipes is at the very pinnacle. May he go from strength to strength, His brilliant mind helps us all to see the way in these dark days in the Israeli-American relationship.

  • Democracy First

    There is perhaps a key difference between Begin's response to the Reagan admin and Netanyahu's to the Obama's. The former maintained the innate sense of tie to a democratic ally, fighting to survive in a hostile land. The latter doesn't feel the natural alliance of fellow democracies. Obama seems not to much differentiate between natural friend and natural foe. He naively sees that any can be either.

  • http://thereisnosantaclaus.blogspot.com TINSC

    I think PM Netanyahu did a fine job of confronting the O'Bama Administration at the AIPAC policy conference when he calmly said:

    "Jerusalem is not a settlement. It is our capital."

    As a Jew, I believe we all need to do more to confront long-held U.S. State Department policy that seeks to dictate where Jews can and cannot build homes. Some of this work needs to be done right here in the United States.

    I offer this essay on the subject:


    • New Yorker

      Netaniyahu may have said it right but I believe Obama could not care less about what's right. For him being right is simply a matter of expediency, whether he may somehow benefit from the fallout. Israel is not the only country who suffered a betrayal and humiliation at Obama's and his cronies' hands. But Israel is in the spotlight and her numerous enemies are ever ready to attack at the first smell of blood. It's too late to be polite. Israeli officials should sound blunt and to the point beating off the attacks by Israel's backstabbing "friends". Some of us who read historic narratives are aware of where "peace in our time" and disarmament lead to. We also know this clownish Nobel Peace Prize for the garbage it really is and Obama was its most recent recepient.

  • Carson Johnson

    Since the US and Israel are separate countries, need I remind you, their interests invariably diverge. And In any conflict between the US and Israel, David Horowitz and his fellow fifth columnists take the side of the latter. What else do we need to know?

    Who's "anti-American" now?

    • Belladonna Rogers

      You are, Carson. Through and through. Your ad hominem attacks are out of line and have no place in intellectual exchanges. You're the worst kind of kid in the schoolyard: a name-caller.

      • Bob Harper

        No, Carson isn't anti-American, he's UN-American.

    • Andy Lewis

      David Duke, is that you?

  • Marty

    Every Jew should read and re-read the two quotes from Begin in this article.
    By reading and rereading his words you will learn what Israelis were like before they became mired in the throes of the delusional psychosis of Oslo Syndrome; before the post-modernist revisionist historians and moral relativists poisoned the minds of two generations with psychotic drivel; before the leftist termites ate away at the body politic of Israel (and the United States).
    Begin's legacy also puts the lie to the oft-repeated canard that there is no military solution to the conflict in the Middle East. The peace treaty with Egypt which has now held for more than 30 years was achieved only after Israel imposed crushing military defeats on the Egyptian army in 1956, 1967 and 1973 forcing Egypt to realize that it was not going to be able to remove Israel by force. Compare that to Gaza today and the results of the lunacy of unilateral withdrawal without imposing a crushing defeat on an enemy that attacks Israel constantly. Enough said.

    • Ron Grant

      "the left to take the side of Al-Qaeda…treason to take the side of Israel."
      What world or universe do you live in ,080?Muchiboy

    • Ron Grant

      "peace treaty with Egypt ..achieved only after crushing defeats in….1973"

      Perhaps.There is an argument that goes like this.Egypt was able to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1973 because ,while ultimately defeated ,Egyptian forces carried out the war with professionalism and initial successes.She was far from humiliated as in past wars.Interestingly,one of the motives for America's initial reluctance to re-supply Israel was to prevent such a humiliating defeat on the Arabs.Seems ironic and paradoxical,but showed surprising forethought on the part of American foreign policy.Humiliating a people or a nation,whether Egypt or the Palestinians,is not in anyone's interest.Where is Solomon when you need him?
      I recall the magnanimity Grant showed Lee and the defeated Confederate Army that went a long way to heal the wounds of a bitter civil war.

  • Alex

    What made President Reagan a great statesman was his adherence to principals. He won every battle doing just that. We, Jews do not need "pro-Israel" demagogues like Schumer, Veiner, Clinton, BHO’s handlers and so on. We need men of principle and it will serve well both – USA and Israel equally.

    Our soldiers should kill jihadists in Iraq and Afghanistan without a second thought. The same shall be applied to belligerent arabs of Israel and her surroundings. And if these “freedom fighters” in the best muslim tradition are hiding behind skirts and children – it is their strategy, not ours. Let the “true believers” blame their own for intentionally provoked “civilian” casualties, if such a thing applies to the willing little helpers of muslim world (see comments on this subject made by American front line soldiers in Somalia, Afghanistan, Iraq, etc., etc.). I have children of my own, and if I have to chose between their life and Iran.. THERE IS NO CONTEST!!!

    Does anybody realize that Israel did not win any of its countless wars against attacking muslims? Never Israel vanquished its enemy to the degree it was done to Germany and Japan. There were always pressures applied to stop the march to the victory either by Soviets, UN, Europeans and/ or US.

    We have to be ruthless to survive. There is no way we can appease people like Carson and Williams. Muslims will never stop, but they could be made to remember and fear a horror of real devastation brought upon by a merciless retaliation. The only language they understand and argument they respect.

    I believe that Israel, as well as the USA, are at the existential precipice and do not have any more time to continue its weak and myopic policies.

    Yes, Carson, in your dreams there may be a nuclear blast in Tel Aviv delivered by Iranians via a suicidal muslim, G-d forbid. I’m sure that will resolve everything for you… Almost…

    But where, do you think the next one is going to go off? Some patriot you are…

  • michaelle

    Obama and his frauds and clowns are tiring. I hope Israel continues to defy our country because the present admin are totally incompetent. The guy lies all the time, talks like a dictator, he likes to hear himself talk–it is more productative to hear someone fart and take a restroom break and bearable. Hearing Obama is torture.

  • Ron Grant

    The Israeli attitude was not as arrogant in '73 in the early hours/days of the Yom Kippur war when the Zionists were chitting their collective military and political pants awaiting American resupplies to make up for initial losses to the Syrian anti-aircraft capabilities.Muchiboy

  • motomanic

    What is this lunacy?. how could you take the stand of a foreign country's action against yours?. where is your loyality exactly?. Isreal should obey the US because if it were not for the US, Isreal would have not existed or flourished. It is US money and that is subsidicing Isreal's standard of living and helping its industries with raising capitols for them and with technology transfers, not to mention operation "Nickel Grass" that saved Isreal from total defeat in 1973. How many times the US defied the world community and vetoed resolution that were critical to Isreal. Let's see how long Isreal would survive without the generosity of the US?.

    • Arnold Wolf

      Israel should command Obama to keep his blood stained Islamic hands off of other countries. Israel would have survived without the USA and the loan guarantees were repaid by Israel. Not like the Arab countries. The US does not give Israel money and the UN sanctions vetoed by the US were meaningless for the United Nations could have done absolutely nothing to harm Israel. The United States could never have survived without Israel's military technology and inventiveness being given free (gratis) to those whose real motives were the using of Israel as a buffer between the rogue countries and America.

      Before the US existed, Israel and the Jewish people survived the numerous attempts to destroy Israel and the Jewish people. All failed… Obama's Sharia bolshevism is soon to come to an end as history does not favor the destroyer of mankind. Israel should continue to tell Obama and America to go screw itself, for Israel is one of the few countries that has the highest GNP in the world.

  • 080

    It seems that it is o.k. for the left to take the side of Al-Qaeda but some kind of treason to take the side of Israel. It was only yesterday when Hillary Clinton was demanding her right to criticize the government of the United States when Bush was in power. As a matter of fact there was a lot to criticize going way back. I wonder if Carson Johnson thinks that Eisenhower was right in ordering the Frenc h, British and Israelis out of Suez. I know that Eisenhower thought it was a big mistake. Not only are the policies of Obama wrong-headed but so were the policies of Bush. It's why we're on our way out of the Middle East altogether. Then the United States doesn't need any policy at all.

  • Paul

    When one compares the many billions more that the U.S. spends trying to keep Muslim radicals from self-destructing their own countries, the amount that the U.S. gives or loans Israel is miniscule. Over the last 100 years there have been miniscule Nobel laureates from Muslim countries (Egypt had a few such as for "peace," and Iran for "literature").

    Afghanistan now receives many times the amounts we give Israel for aid, yet it produces 93% of the world's opium and destroys millions of lives as a result. The income is even laundered back to fund terrorism against America and to destroy its own government.

    Jerusalem is the source of the Judeo-Christian philosophy. There is more to Netanyahu's comment, "E. Jerusalem is not a settlement" than the mild-sounding words. He may be reinvoking it as the "source" for the Judeo-Christian system. He may soon declare that if the Pals sincerely desire "peace", they will have to declare with honest handshakes and action against warfare, instead of barbarism. The choice has always been theirs.

    • trickyblain

      "Jerusalem is the source of the Judeo-Christian philosophy."

      What is the "Judeo-Christian philosophy"?

  • USMCSniper

    Israel would have to have some dort of death wish to ever depend on a clandestine Muslim Marxist US President with US Secretary of State who is an inept post menopausal closet communist hag who has failed at everything she ever tried.

  • http://intensedebate.com/people/joeblough joeblough

    Red Hussein's antagonism toward Israel is pretty much the same as his antagonism toward America.

    With the exceptions of a few oddballs like Ron Paul, who seem to think that other than very tightly defined matters of trade, America's interests stop at the shoreline, pretty much every sensible American understands that about Red Hussein.

    Red Hussein himself is of limited interest in this connection. His outlook appears to match what one could expect from someone who acquired his basic values in a mohammedan colonial state like Indonesia — tempered of course with a whole pile of modern new left crap.

    But I'm not sure I quite get what Netanyahu us thinking.

    I'm willing to assume that he's sensible, patriotic and well disposed toward the US. But that won't tell me what he's thinking. Maybe he thinks that it's safer in the short term to jolly Red Hussein along — insofar as a pissed off enemy may be more dangerous than a calm one. But that's just blind guessing on my part.

  • Turbeaux

    Pipes does far better when he writes about Israel instead of non-existent moderate Islam.

  • clyde

    USMCSniper for President..!!

  • bronish

    I think Israel is the only country with the spine (and/or balls) to do what needs to be done in regards to the Islamic problem….Israel has been forced to face the enemy for centuries…it's always the same mantra…Jew haters bent upon the destruction of Israel.

    Israel will never be annihilated, tho, because it is the Lord's real estate. It has been said that Israel is God's timepiece, too. Watch Israel. The USA would be very wise to stand by Israel, and support Israel against all foes, and especially the Islamic one.

  • http://catinsurance2.webnode.com Cat insurance

    What some call the 'West Bank,' Mr. President, is Judea and Samaria, and this simple historic truth will never change. There are cynics who deride history. They may continue their derision as they wish, but I will stand by the truth. And the truth is that millennia ago there was a Jewish Kingdom of Judea and Samaria where our kings knelt to God, where our prophets brought forth the vision of eternal peace, where we developed a rather rich civilization which we took with us in our hearts and in our minds, on our long global trek for over 18 centuries; and, with it, we came back home. By aggressive war, by invasion, King Abdullah conquered parts of Judea and Samaria in 1948; and in a war of most legitimate self-defense in 1967, after being attacked by King Hussein, we liberated, with God's help, that portion of our homeland.