Indicting the Anointed

Intellectuals and Society
By Thomas Sowell
Basic Books, $29.95,
Review by David Forsmark

George Orwell famously said some things are so foolish that only an intellectual could believe them, for no ordinary man could be such a fool.

Thomas Sowell has made a career out of debunking those very things—most famously elite assumptions about racism and economics in classic books like Ethnic America, Race and Culture, Knowledge and Decisions, and The Vision of the Annointed.

I’ve often defined a postmodern intellectual as someone who is trained to be sure he knows better.  Thomas Sowell, however, is a true intellectual in the best sense.  His mind is not only open to the fact that he might not know better, his superb new book explains why it is impossible for one dictator or a small group of elites to know better than the great unwashed how to run their lives.

A constant theme of Sowell’s work is that elites regularly—and with disastrous effect—substitute their assumptions for the actual on the ground knowledge of the masses of people.  In Intellectuals and Society, he singles out so-called “intellectuals,” those whose profession is trafficking in ideas, and the echo chamber they tend to inhabit.

He charges that such people may be “intellects,” but that doesn’t mean they are very smart.

“The capacity to grasp and manipulate complex ideas is enough to define intellect but not enough to encompass intelligence, which involves combining intellect with judgment and care in selecting relevant explanatory factors and in establishing empirical tests of any theory that emerges. Intelligence minus judgment equals intellect.  Wisdom is the rarest quality of all — the ability to combine intellect, knowledge, experience, and judgment in a way to produce a coherent understanding.”

Of course, once you have spent a lifetime debunking things that are accepted as Gospel by the “intellectual class,” and prove Orwell’s thesis on a daily basis, the term “pseudo- intellectual” starts to lose its meaning:

The term “pseudo- intellectual” has sometimes been applied to less intelligent or less knowledgeable members of this profession. But just as a bad cop is still a cop — no matter how much we may regret it — so a shallow, confused, or dishonest intellectual is just as much a member of that occupation as is a paragon of the profession.

Recently, Boston College’s Alan Wolfe, a prime example of the above definition– wrote an intellectually dishonest pseudo-review of Intellectuals and Society for the usually rigorous New Republicwhich David Horowitz dispatched quite nicely.

Wolfe’s review might as well have been titled, “I Represent That Remark.”  (I have done a couple of radio interviews with Wolfe, and found him to be less than impressive.) While Horowitz doubted that Wolfe, who protested the lack of musicians and novelists in Sowells’ discussion, had read the parameters of the discussion on page 2, I think it’s more likely Wolfe made it to the page 4 definition of pseudo-intellectuals, felt the pang of self-recognition, and then went on his very personal rant against Sowell.

Wolfe, ironically supplies the perfect example of how intellectuals who share the currently anointed vision of the world make what Sowell calls “Arguments without Arguments:”

Although many intellectuals are especially well-equipped by talent and training to engage in logically structured arguments using empirical evidence to analyze contending ideas, many of their political or ideological views are promoted by verbal virtuosity and evading structured arguments and empirical evidence. Among the many arguments without arguments are claims that opposing views are “simplistic” and opposing individuals unworthy, as well as assertion of “rights” and attributing to adversaries a belief and panaceas or golden ages.

…Before an explanation can be too simple, it must first be wrong.  But often the fact that some explanation seems to simple becomes a substitute for showing that it is wrong.

Usually, economists who discuss Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” do so in the context of business and the economy.  In Intellectuals and Society, Sowell not only gives the best explanation of why the invisible hand of self-interest works better than a central plan, he then applies it to subjects as far afield from economics as war and police shootings.

Sowell argues that the intelligentsia devalue “mundane knowledge” in favor of special knowledge.  However, mundane knowledge is what it takes to actually get anything done.

Someone who is considered to be a ‘knowledgeable’ person usually has a special kind of knowledge — perhaps academic or other kinds of knowledge not widely found in the population at large. Someone who has even more knowledge of more mudane things — plumbing, carpentry, or baseball, for example — is less likely to be called “knowledgeable” by those intellectuals, for what they don’t know isn’t knowledge.. .. It is by no means certain that the kind of knowledge mastered by intellectuals is necessarily more consequential in its effect in the real world.

For instance, it may be impressive that a physicist understands Bernoulli’s principles of aerodynamic lift, but you wouldn’t want him in the cockpit second guessing your pilot.  Sowell argues that the smartest man cannot know even 1% of what would be required to run the lives of the people in a community, but that is what experts, politicians and intellectuals attempt in their hubris.

Despite the often expressed dichotomy between chaos and planning, what is called “planning” is the forcible suppression of millions of people’s plans by government imposed plan.

….what is called “social” planning are in fact government orders over writing the plans and mutual accommodations of millions of other people.

That is why free markets, judicial restraint, and reliance on decisions and traditions growing out of the experiences of the many — rather than the presumptions of elite few — are so important to those who do not share the social vision prevalent among intellectual elites.

The intellectuals’ exultation of “reason” often comes at the expense of experience, allowing them to have sweeping confidence about things in which they have little or no knowledge or experience.

Intellectuals and Society is one of those books you want to read with a red pencil, to highlight nuggets like those above for later use.

While intellectuals’ visions cause social and economic disruption in many areas, none are so immediately deadly as their approach to war and foreign relations.  Sowell indicts the anointed for ignoring all empirical evidence and experience to the contrary, and insisting that the next dictator—from Hitler to Ahmadinejad—is the one who can be dealt with diplomatically.

Sowell concludes with a list of the anointed intelligentsia’s assumptions which have turned the world upside down, of which, he says, a complete refutation would fill volumes. “More important,” he says ruefully, “It fills our schools and colleges.”

The intelligentsia have treated the conclusions of their vision as axioms to be followed, rather than hypotheses to be tested.

Some among the intelligentsia have treated reality itself as objective or illusory, thereby putting current intellectual fashions and fads on the same plane as verified knowledge and the cultural wisdom distilled from generations of experience…

They have filtered information in the media, in the schools, and in academia, who to leave out things that threaten their vision of the world.

Above all, they exalt themselves by denigrating the society in which they live and turning its members against each other.

Of course, as he points out early in the book, an intellectual is someone who can lecture a police department on how many shots are sufficient to bring down an armed suspect under stressful conditions—when he himself has never even fired a pistol on a range.

Long before the Freakonomics phenomenon, Thomas Sowell was making this kind of real life critique from an economist’s point of view. Intellectuals and Society is accessible, witty, practical, brilliantly argued, and essential reading.  It’s sure to infuriate self-important elites.

In other words, it’s a typical Thomas Sowell book.

  • J. D. Saunders

    An excellent review for a book I'll buy and read. Thomas Sowell won my admiration and respect long ago.

  • owyheewine

    I've stated for some time that Dr. Sowell is a national treasure. There is no one in the country that is a better analyst of our society and times.
    Read everything you can that has been written by this man and you'll gain new understanding that's unavailable elsewhere.

    • http://intensedebate.com/people/HelgaMarie HelgaMarie

      I was going to say exactly that but you beat me to it! Thomas Sowells' brilliance takes my breath away!

  • USMCSniper

    Ayn Rand said it well. The foundation of any culture, the source responsible for all of its manifestations, is its philosophy. What does modern philosophy offer us? Virtually the only point of agreement among today’s leading intellectuals is that there is no such thing as philosophy—and that this knowledge constitutes their claim to the title of philosophers. With a hysterical virulence, strange in advocates of skepticism, they insist that there can be no valid philosophical systems (i.e., there can be no integrated, consistent, comprehensive view of existence)—that there are no answers to fundamental questions—there is no such thing as truth—there is no such thing as reason, and the battle is only over what should replace it: “linguistic games” or unbridled feelings?

    Philosophy is the science that studies the fundamental aspects of the nature of existence. The task of philosophy is to provide man with a comprehensive view of life. This view serves as a base, a frame of reference, for all his actions, mental or physical, psychological or existential.

    • http://intensedebate.com/people/Swemson Swemson

      I'd like to buy you a beer !

      Not only are you a fellow jarhead, but an Objectivist as well !

      I took the basic course at NBI in the early 60's before joining The Corps in 68'

      Oooh Rahhh !

      • John C. Davidson

        Control yourself, Marine!

        • http://intensedebate.com/people/Swemson Swemson

          I can't.

          When I read stuff as brilliant as that I get a tingling feeling down my leg.

          • http://intensedebate.com/people/DavidForsmark DavidForsmark

            Why THANK you!

            Oh, you meant Sowell…

          • http://intensedebate.com/people/Swemson Swemson

            Actually I was referring to USMCSniper whose comment I was responding to..

            But you're pretty smart yourself… ;-)

            Great review btw !

          • Robert Wargas

            Really solid review, David.

            I wrote about this book for FrontPageMag a few weeks ago. Sowell generates a lot of buzz.

          • http://intensedebate.com/people/DavidForsmark DavidForsmark

            Thanks Robert. I reviewed several Sowell books (and Horowitz's Hating Whitey, for that matter) for the Flint Journal. The city Michael Moore claims as his hometown. THAT generated buzz!

            Liked your column, also.

          • roksob

            You girls should get together and have a tickle party

          • http://intensedebate.com/people/DavidForsmark DavidForsmark

            I guess we now know Congressman Massa's screen name.

  • http://tryingtokeepbotheyesopen.blogspot/comlogspot.com blb

    There's much "mundane knowledge" in the question, "Do fish know they're wet?" Sowell, one of the best known public intellectuals, never ceases to remind me of this knowledge.

  • Peachey

    Universities and colleges abound with intellectual barbarians. Long on hubris and short on wisdom, academia has become a vipers nest of elitist,self-centered, dishonest non-thinkers.This is a cancer that strangles the very life out of the personal and intellectual growth of our children. Again the malignancy of the Progressive. Dr. Sowell is a gem and his works are spot on.Thank you David for the review.

  • JohnC

    Mr. Sowell is without question a national treasure. He earned his educational and professional bona fides in an era when there was no such thing as affirmative action and is truly a man of honor, patriotism, courage and great intellect. I never miss reading anything he authors and he is as must watch when being interviewed in this house. And, if I ever find that magic lamp, one of my three wishes would be to spend an evening with this incredible man.

  • Raymond in DC

    I finished this marvelous work recently. Not only does he artfully deconstruct the rantings of the elite chattering class of today – the professors of our "elite" institutions, the liberal media, and (dare I say) most Democrats – he shows the "intellectuals" are carrying on a long running tradition. The very attitudes and arguments asserted today are just modern day variants of those proffered between the two world wars. Plus ca change …

  • therealend

    I agree that Mr Sowell is brilliant and honorable but one troubling thought keeps going around and around inside my head: someway, the Left is going to make him pay for this.

  • John C. Davidson

    Very few people can explain to us what has accumulated in Washington so aptly as Doctor Sowell does.

  • Morrisminor

    Forsmark has nothing to worry about, no one would mistale him for either being intelligent or an intellectual