Fact or Fiction?: 1001 Muslim Inventions Comes to Washington D.C.

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National Geographic Explorer’s Hall in Washington D.C. has hosted some of the most prestigious exhibits in America.  Previous exhibits have included the Chinese terracotta warriors, as well as the James Caird, the lifeboat Sir Ernest Shackleton miraculously sailed from Antarctica to South Georgia Island in 1916.  Currently it is hosting a curious exhibit through February 2013 entitled “1001 Inventions: Discover the Golden Age of Muslim Civilization.”  This high tech, slickly produced exhibit explicitly seeks to debunk the “myth” that the dark ages were dark.

The exhibit purports to provide examples of innovations from Muslim civilization, and some of the claims may come as a surprise to those familiar with the Wright Brothers or Yuri Gagarin.

I recently visited “1001 Inventions” which was housed on the same floor as a fantastic Titanic exhibit.  I purchased entry to the museum at a ticket booth staffed by Rebecca Head, a National Geographic employee.  Perhaps assuming I was heading to see the Titanic exhibit, Head pushed attendance at 1001 Inventions  – “There is a really great exhibit on Muslim inventions you should see.”

The exhibit begins with star power – a short movie starring Academy Award-winner Ben Kingsley.  Kingsley plays a librarian who faces a trio of young uniformed (presumably British) students seeking information about “the dark ages.”

Kingsley’s character bristles at the children’s characterization, critical of those “filling your head with such nonsense and ripping down the good of former civilizations.”

But “everyone knows the Greeks and Romans invented everything!” one child replies.

Kingsley’s librarian doesn’t equivocate – “some of the most important discoveries” were made by “Muslim civilizations.”

Harry Potter-style magic takes over, and Kingsley is transformed with beautiful flourish from an English librarian into the exotic turban wearing historical figure of Al-Jazari.  The children are enthralled, both on the screen, and in the audience.

Al-Jazari informs the three children that a grand civilization “that stretched from Spain to China” was responsible “for some of the most important discoveries” in the world.  These include, according to Kingsley’s transformed Al-Jazari, devices such as the camera.

And herein lies the most fascinating characteristic of the entire exhibit – the slipperiness of its language.  Indeed, language throughout the exhibit, as we shall see, becomes a way to trick attendees.  Cleverly chosen words nudge readers toward unsupported conclusions.  Myth mingles with science.  Rumor becomes history.

Consider the “invention” of the camera.  Al-Jazari, portrayed masterfully and magically on screen by Kingsley, says “he” was responsible for explaining “how our eyes work” and developed camera obscura. Even if it is historically accurate that Al-Jazari pioneered camera obscura, the slithery language of the screenplay generates an inference that Al-Jazari is somehow legitimately involved in the chain of inventions culminating in my Nikon 35mm.

I was reminded of George Orwell’s Politics and the English Language when he wrote: “But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought.”

Kingsley’s Al-Jazari fulfills Orwell’s warning in the film when he introduces another Muslim inventor, Abbas Ibn Firnas, who “dared to dream man could fly 1000 years before the Wright Brothers.”

Outside the theater, Firnas is featured in a flight exhibit.  Firnas is “said to be the first person who tried to fly.  His first attempt which has passed into legend took place when he leapt from the minaret of the Great Mosque in Cordoba.  Equipped with a glider with wooden struts, he managed to fly and landed more or less unharmed.  [His] next flight was more ambitious.  From the top of a nearby hill, he launched himself and his flying machine, apparently gliding for some distance before falling, a problem blamed on the lack of a tail.”

Notice all of the tricks of language.  He was the first “who tried to fly,” and “passed into legend,” “more or less unharmed,” the “flying machine,” (implying moving parts), and “apparently gliding for some distance.”  Naturally he also diagnosed that that cause of his failure was the want of a tail. The exhibit neglects to inform us about whether he applied this fix to his “machine.”

The exhibit also features an interactive game for children where they can help Firnas fly by flapping their arms.

This all might seem harmless, but consider the argument I had with my 8-year-old after leaving the exhibit.  She was convinced that the Wright Brothers were not the first to fly, and instead it was Firnas launched from the mosque at Cordoba a millennium ago.  This would not be the only instance when thought corrupted the language of the exhibit, which in turn corrupted thought, at least among the more impressionable.

The short introductory film with Kingsley playing Al-Jazari goes on to tell the three on-screen students (and the many children in the theatre) that the 1001 inventions include medical devices, ideas or unspecified things which somehow led to the compass and GPS satellite navigation and the very Industrial Revolution itself.

Al-Jazari hands the children a book called “1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World” and urges them plainly to “spread the word.”

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  • @a2mac

    Fascinating attempts to claim credit for writing in Arabic that which the world had already discovered. Camera Obscura wa documented/ known 1000 yrs before Muhammad was born. A Chinese man was first and this was followed by Greeks like Aristotle. We all know the story of Igarus flying to close to the sun again predating Islam by hundreds of years.

    When Arabs conquered north africa/persia Jewish & Coptic Christians Translated exciting scholarly works into Arabic. Some of this work was further developed most just plagiarised and passed of by later generations as innovation. They have invented very little in 1500 years for the population size. Compare to inventions of Scots or Jews.

    • Hani

      you may want to watch this, I think you need to know the facts.


      • BintAlAbla

        Thank you Hani. Unfortunately some people have disregarded the facts. Never mind, truth will triumph.

  • WakingUp

    What about these inventions? The Genuine inventions…….

    The yellow badge that was used by the Nazis against the Jews, was invented by a Muslim caliph in Baghdad in the 9th century as a variant of the zunnār belt. This then spread to the western world in medieval times. Source: Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, Princeton University Press, June 1, 1987, I S B N 978069 1008073, pp. 25-26.

    According to Dr. K. Ajram, the author of “Miracle of Islamic Science”, Muslim scholars invented racial-typing centuries before the German Johann Friedrich Blumenbach “divided mankind into white, yellow, brown, black and red peoples”. Very frank for a change!

    In January 2013, Iran unveiled its new “amputation machine” via its official press agency, INSA. The device resembles a rotary saw and is used to mete out Shari’ah punishments to thieves, i e handcuttings.

    The first IBM PC virus in the wild was “(c)Brain”, created in 1986 by the Farooq Alvi Brothers in Lahore, Pakistan. Wow.

    According to Somayya Jabarti of Arab News, Saudi Arabia has the second highest divorce rate in the world (most divorces occur during the first three years of marriage).

    Turkey is the most promiscuous nation on earth, with the average Turk having had 14.5 sexual partners. The world average is 9 sexual partners (Indian and Chinese have had only 3 partners). – Durex survey

  • Ralph Ellis

    Sorry, but every single so-called Islamic invention was Roman, Greek, Indian or Persian.



  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLNn2YflwNs Roger

    Why am I not surprised that you a)defend violent islam and b)know about violence?

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLNn2YflwNs Roger

    Wee, you small little man.
    You are so full of hate for Christianity…

    Why an exact copy? Does paganism have grace? Does it have a savior that doesn't demand payment or rituals to earn our way to heaven?

    Christianity and Judaism may have some similarities in roots, but the mechanics and approach is totally opposite to paganism.

    You are simply a blinded bigot. Do you sit close to Trista Parsi's office?

  • Eyes_open

    Just back up a minute. Christianity stole almost everything it has from European pagans, but it didn't steal everything the European pagans had to offer. It took the holidays, and the myths, but left behind the good, humanitarian, neighborly basis that the pagans based their religions on.

    I resent the comparison. That is like saying that a rapist and a rape victim both had sex so they are basically the same. Not even close.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLNn2YflwNs Roger

    I can read what you said, and the idea behind it was wrong. I explained why.

    Once again your ideas and claims are based on bigotry that doesn't stand up to the light of day.

    Wee, you're still just a small little man.

  • Eyes_open

    Does paganism have grace?


    Does it have a savior that doesn't demand payment or rituals to earn our way to heaven?

    Yes, but we don't call it Heaven, different name.

    We also don't have a "hell" that was totally a Hebrew/Christian invention to scare little children into doing as the priest told them. (Now pull down those nickers little one and I will give you a great blessing, and if you tell anyone you will go straight to hell)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLNn2YflwNs Roger

    You silly little pagan. Christians never had to work their way to heaven never had to offer a single sacrifice. Never had to earn the approval of God.

    What theft of ideas are you talking about again?

    I resent your lies and insinuations.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLNn2YflwNs Roger

    Is that why pagans slaughtered so many human sacrifices to humor the gods they worshipped?

    You silly pagan you.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLNn2YflwNs Roger

    You were just refusing to admit that suicide bombs as a way to paradise is a muslim invention.

    When the Tamil tigers used them it was a tactica offensive weapon to survive as a group. When islam uses it it's a forced tool to attack and go on the offensive.

    And you still a) defend violent islam b) know about violence.

  • WTE

    Evidentally you can't read that well. I was right and you were wrong……………..that is always thecase no matter what you say <DIV style=”FONT-FAMILY: times new roman, new york, times, serif; FONT-SIZE: 12pt”> <DIV style=”FONT-FAMILY: times new roman, new york, times, serif; FONT-SIZE: 12pt”> <DIV dir=ltr> <DIV style=”BORDER-BOTTOM: #ccc 1px solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ccc 1px solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0px; LINE-HEIGHT: 0; MARGIN: 5px 0px; PADDING-LEFT: 0px; PADDING-RIGHT: 0px; HEIGHT: 0px; FONT-SIZE: 0px; BORDER-TOP: #ccc 1px solid; BORDER-RIGHT: #ccc 1px solid; PADDING-TOP: 0px”></DIV>

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLNn2YflwNs Roger

    Poor little wee, you're sitting at your work terminal watching Trista Parsi walking around afraid that you're supervisors will realize how ineffective your style of propaganda is.

    A hate filled bigot, and you pretend to be a part of any real discussion…..it's not working is it?