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Among advanced degrees in engineering awarded at U.S. universities during the 2007-08 academic year, 28 percent went to whites; 2 percent went to blacks; 2 percent went to Hispanics; and 61 percent went to foreigners. Of the advanced degrees in mathematics, 40 percent went to whites; 2 percent went to blacks; 5 percent went to Hispanics; and 50 percent went to foreigners. For advanced degrees in education, 65 percent went to whites; 17 percent went to blacks; 5 percent went to Hispanics; and 8 percent went to foreigners. The pattern is apparent. The more rigorous a subject area the higher the percentage of foreigners — and the lower the percentage of Americans — earning advanced degrees. In subject areas such as education, which have little or no rigor, Americans are likelier — and foreigners are less likely — to earn advanced degrees.
In a New York Times article — “Do We Need Foreign Technology Workers?” (April 8, 2009) — Dr. Vivek Wadhwa of the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University said “that 47 percent of all U.S. science and engineering workers with doctorates are immigrants as were 67 percent of the additions to the U.S. science and engineering work force between 1995 to 2006. And roughly 60 percent of engineering Ph.D. students and 40 percent of master’s students are foreign nationals.”
American mathematic proficiency levels leave a lot to be desired if we’re to maintain competitiveness. For blacks and Hispanics, it’s a tragedy with little prospect for change, but the solution is not rocket science. During my tenure as a member of Temple University’s faculty in the 1970s, I tutored black students in math. When they complained that math was too difficult, I told them that if they spent as much time practicing math as they did practicing jump shots, they’d be just as good at math as they were at basketball. The same message of hard work and discipline applies to all students, but someone must demand it.
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