President of the Public Interest Legal Foundation, J. Christian Adams, who was a member of President Donald Trump’s election integrity commission, spoke recently at the David Horowitz Freedom Center’s annual Restoration Weekend, held November 10-13, 2022 at the Biltmore Hotel in Phoenix, AZ.
Adams discusses fixed elections, election fraud, cleaning up registration rolls and much more.
Don’t miss this eye opening speech of a man called by his opponents “a one-man wrecking ball!”
Christian Adams: Thank you for that introduction. Indeed, I will be the last Trump appointee in the federal government in 2025 on the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, which was founded in 1957. And it’s funny, if you paid attention to the news, Biden is firing all these members of commissions. I don’t know if you saw like the Naval Academy Oversight Board and other commissions. He’s just telling everybody who Trump appointed, “You need to leave.”
And you wonder like why aren’t they doing that to J. Christian Adams? Well, President Reagan in 1985 fired the entire United States Commission on Civil Rights, my commission. And so Congress came back and passed a law — Tip O’Neill was speaker — that said, you can’t fire the U.S. Commissioners on Civil Rights, right? (Laughter). So now I’m actually enjoying it, and that’s what will make me the very last Trump appointee in the federal government, I think. I can’t find anybody else so — but they hate me for it, believe me. [Applause].
So again, as, as Mark said, I’m the President of the Public Interest Legal Foundation. We’re the only nonprofit that only does election integrity litigation. It’s great to be here to reunite with some old friends and to meet some new people. I’m always humbled when I speak to this event, but I’m also thrilled because I love — I got to tell you, I love the role that David Horowitz has played in my life, not only the enjoyment of his sharp, incredible prose. When you read the books, when you hear him speak just the other night, it was — I wish I could write that well.
But when I was in law school, just so you guys understand the role of the Freedom Center — and you heard David talk about shaping Katie Pavlich and so forth. When I was in law school, this thing would arrive in the mail called Heterodoxy that the Freedom Center published. I had no idea how I was on this list. It was like this miracle from the Secret Mountain outpost, right? And, and you would get this publication called Heterodoxy and you would say, oh, my gosh, there’s really people out there like me, right, and I can learn these ideas. And it gave you a beacon of hope.
But it really became important in my life personally when I was at the United States Department of Justice. In the voting section, I brought that case against the new Black Panther Party. And if you remember, this was in 2008, the Black Panthers with billy clubs standing in front of polls. And I brought the case under the Voter Intimidation statutes under federal law, and the Panthers never responded to the case. Those of you who are lawyers know what happens if you don’t respond to a lawsuit. And then the inauguration happened, if you remember, and the Obama administration dismissed the case and said, make this case go away.
I filed the dismissal in federal court as I was told to do, but then I got subpoenaed by — and here’s where the story gets really ironic. The United States Commission on Civil Rights, which I am now a member of, and they subpoenaed me to testify, why did this case get dismissed? And by the way, there’s a criminal penalty if you don’t comply with the subpoena under statute. And the Justice Department told me, don’t testify.
Audience Member: (Inaudible).
Christian Adams: Right. They said, “We won’t prosecute you.” See, they started this bias justice early. I saw this firsthand, we were the canaries in the coal mine in 2008, 2009. And so I resigned, so I could testify and I didn’t have a job after that. I went from GS15 — I’m sorry, 1510 — and if you guys have been in the federal government, you know what a GS1510 is. Like I was at the top of the mountain and I didn’t have any income for months and months and months. I got called to write a book by Regnery, which Mark mentioned the name of. But then I got a call from the Horowitz Center and they said, “We want to give you an award.”
And I got to tell you something, it meant a profound thing in my life because at the time, once again, like that Heterodoxy in the mail was telling you, there’s people out there that are like you. And so every time I’m here, I apologize if you’ve heard that before, but I want to mention it because it was so important. And now we’re running an organization to do election integrity.
And as Mark mentioned, this is on the program. This session is called Fixing Elections. Now, are you an optimist or a pessimist? Because this might mean two different things, right? This is the picture of the lady and the hag. You can pick which fixing elections you want to hear about. Well, I’ve got you covered, I’m going to do both, I will do both. And this morning, Ned Ryan quoted Lady Macbeth and I thought I would keep it going. And I’m going to talk about the bad fixing of elections and then the good fixing of elections. If you’ll bear with me, that’s going to be the structure here.
First, the bad fixing elections. What I want to emphasize is the left has created a process overlay. They care about process. Like Robert [Kaley] said, get out the vans versus go on TV; talk about big ideas versus get people to the polls. So they’ve created a process and they’ve imposed on this country a variety of things, rules, laws, procedures, and I’m going to go through with them. But I thought I would mention, as I said, Ned Ryan, Lady Macbeth, another line from Macbeth. They have imposed on this country a witches’ brew of different things that change our elections. In Macbeth, the witches talk about the eye of newt and toe of frog, the wool of bat and tongue of dog.
Now I’m going to talk about things like same day registration, and I’m going to talk about alien voting, male voting, and all of these things in the witches brew that you now are familiar with. And I thought we might start with early voting. There was a time in all of our lives where we would stand in line with our neighbors on one day and vote. I still remember going to the polls, I wasn’t old enough to vote, but in the 1972 presidential election. I still remember seeing Nixon’s name and I was very young. But my parents took me on that Election Day to emphasize the importance of this is the day we turn out and pick who the president is — one single day. Now, lest you think that this witches’ brew of early voting being — maybe it’ll be the eye of newt — is a left-wing plot, which it is, but it was started in Florida in 2004 with 15 days of early voting.
But now in Wyoming in 2011, an incredibly Republican state in 2011, they went to 45 days of early voting, 45 days. And I went back last night in preparation for this to look up the legislative history of that. And you’re not going to believe what I found. It passed the Wyoming House — which as you can deduce, is not filled with progressives — 56 to nothing. It passed the Wyoming Senate 30-something to nothing. So keep that in mind. So this witches’ brew early voting has created an elongated election that increases polarization; it creates situations where people vote for Fetterman before they see the debates. It creates a country where we no longer have to stand in line together and we’ve come further in our silos.
Let’s move to maybe toe of frog, alien voting, oh, yes, chuckle, non-citizens voting. Really? Oh yes, this is next. I’m telling you what’s down the horizon for the left. This became clear to me when I was testifying to the House Judiciary Committee a couple of years ago. And I was talking about how bad it is that some aliens are voting, and they were doing this because of failures in the motor voter system. It was an honor system. In case you wondered, there is no such thing as citizenship verification when people register to vote. In fact, it’s illegal; you can’t require citizenship verification. It’s a whole other topic about the NVRA. I’m not saying I agree with it, I’m just explaining what it is.
But I was testifying to the House Judiciary Committee and Representative Jamie Raskin from Maryland, and he’s that wild-eyed guy who ought to be doing painting on PBS. He says to me, “What’s wrong with non-citizens voting?” And I was shocked, right, as some of you are, to think this came from a congressman. He said, “As a matter of fact, I introduced a bill to legalize it in federal elections.” Now that shocked me even more, but let me give you the ultimate shock. I looked up his bill not long ago to allow non-citizens to vote in federal elections, which is currently a felony. He has 140 co-sponsors — 140 co-sponsors — to allow foreigners to vote in American elections. So when I tell you this is coming down the pike, don’t doubt me.
Let’s move to tongue of dog, mail voting. Everything about this election that’s slowing the results is because of mail voting. Everything that is not giving us results in Nevada and Arizona is because of mail voting because mail voting takes more time to process, it’s an administrative matter. You have to open envelopes, you have to flatten the paper, or else they won’t scan. You have to do all these other things. You have to make sure the person didn’t vote in person. So there’s all these administrative steps that go with mail voting that slows down the results.
Same-day registration, this is the law in many places. Maybe this will be the wool of bat. And same day registration means you just walk up to the polls and you vote. It’s like they have in New Hampshire, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Wyoming, believe it or not, and you just go and you vote, you vouch. That’s why Norm Coleman was no longer in the Senate. John Fund and Hans von Spakovsky have written a book that detailed this in great detail that shows that because of same-day registration, Norm Coleman lost that race, and Al Franken, the clown, became the 60th vote for Obamacare. So same-day registration created Obamacare. That’s when I say process creates policy. You saw it in Minnesota.
The next bit of the witches’ brew happened in 2020 was Zuck Bucks. Now, I’d like to submit that this is the most important part of the 2020 election. I’ve written a piece about this, called it the Real Kraken. I’m not going to rehash the piece of PJ Media, but it boils down to this. Private entities paid government officials cash to tell them what to do, how to run their election. In the old days, we called that a bribe, right? That’s the Tony Soprano business model. You pay government officials and you tell them what to do. But it was legal, it was legal. And we’ll get to the fixes, fixing elections with the good news. This is all the bad news, guys, don’t get too down.
But in 2020, that cash was used to make urban centers turnout machines. Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Lansing, Milwaukee, Madison, Phoenix, that private money went into making those places turn out machines, which by the way, explains why the Republicans did so well down-ballot, and didn’t do good at the top of the ticket because, for example, in Philadelphia, city employees went door-to-door, which was legal, door-to-door, getting people to vote. And those city employees only had time to care about one contest. And you guys know which one; it’s the one at the top of the ticket with that mortifying name, Trump, that they all hated and wanted to get out of office.
So the city employees in Philadelphia were hired with private money. They went door-to-door with ballots legally to turn out the vote in a place where they didn’t even have to tell the people how to vote; they knew. Remember guys, culture matters a great deal. So if you know that people are going to vote a certain way, you pour money into getting those people to GOtv, like you just heard Robert talk about in the last session. They bought skywriter planes with this money. You remember at the beach, like Atlantic City or whatever, the planes would go by with tails of messages. Private money went into Philadelphia sky planes to tell people to go vote. That was the abundance of riches they had in 2020 using Zuck Bucks, which by the way is Mark Zuckerberg, in case you hadn’t heard this story.
That made an enormous difference. You didn’t need to rig how those people were voting because you knew how they were they going to vote because you were in Detroit, you were in Philadelphia. You don’t need to tell them how to vote or mark their ballot for them. They just vote the way they vote. All you got to do is get them to vote and that’s what Zuck Bucks was all about.
I’ll briefly mention ranked choice voting. That’s the rigged system where you don’t actually get to vote for the last two. It’s where you rank all your candidates and then they run it through the computers and you spit out this like fantasy election. It’s like being in a football fantasy league, right? You like pretend you’re voting for these people. It’s ranked choice voting and you pick your candidates ahead of time. You rank them and let’s suppose — this is really confusing, so I’m going to try. I get on radio and I try to explain this and I tell the host ahead of time, you really don’t want me trying to explain. I’ll try.
You pick your five candidates in order, Bush, Perot, Clinton, communist; I forget who the communist was in 1992. Green, I think, or was that Andre Marrou, the libertarian? Okay. So you rank your guys and whoever doesn’t — whoever finishes last gets kicked out and they run it all over again. That’s how ranked choice voting works. And then they get down to the last two, which you don’t even know who they are, the computer does. And that’s why Sarah Palin is not going to go to Congress because of ranked choice voting in Alaska. Now, lest you think this is not a good idea and this will never go, and people will reject this idea, it just passed to Nevada on the referendum. It’s going to become the law in Nevada.
Okay. The last bit of witches’ brew I’ll leave you with is the best of all because you guys are going to think I’m making this up. I’m not making this up, I’m just going to tell you ahead of time. The next piece of witches’ brew that goes into the pot is child voting. Yes, yes, you heard me correctly, the mic was working. Child voting is the next big thing. And lest you think that I’m making up something or this is hyperbole, it is the law in Maryland for a school board. And I’ll get to the fixed part and the good news tell you about our lawsuit challenging it.
But in Maryland, in Howard County, in Anne Arundel County, children from 6th grade to 12th grade can vote for a school board member that gets to sit on a real school board and cast real votes — children, 12-year-olds. This is part of the left’s plan to infantalize elections. And lest you think this is just confined to Maryland, it was part of H.R.1 to reduce the voting age to 17 as a federal matter. So Maryland is a test run folks. It’s to be able to say in a few years, look, we do it in Maryland, kids as young as 11 vote for a school board. What’s wrong with 17 on the federal level? See how this works?
They play the long game like the Chinese communists. So child voting is the law in Maryland and in Howard County, Maryland, a child member of the school board voted, of course, to keep schools closed during Covid. (Laughter). Right. Oh, it’s even better than that. The child members — the election — did anybody see the movie with Reese Witherspoon and Matthew Broderick, Election? It’s kind of like that. Like these elections are run inside the classroom and the nominees all come from the local teachers’ unions. So the administrators are picking the three or four progressive little drone children to run, and then all the children are voting. It’s like Lord of the Flies, and they’re picking someone who actually wield government power on the school boards in Maryland. I’m not making this up; that’s why we’re suing Maryland and I’ll get to that later. So that’s the witches’ brew. All of these terrible things are happening in our elections, fixing elections. None of this fix is by accident; it’s all well-funded by the usual suspects, we know who they are.
But let me try to move a little bit to the good news, the good side of this talk about fixing the elections and what can be done and what is being done about a lot of this stuff. Okay. Zuck Bucks, let’s take it from there. 21 states, including the one you’re sitting in, has banned Zuck Bucks. In other words, the legislature passed a law to prevent private money from going to government election officials to tell them how to do their jobs. That is a triumph after 2020, it’s a big deal. Florida of course leads the way; they were the first ones to ban Zuck Bucks, then Arizona.
Mail voting, now remember in 2020 when all these cases were being brought and lost? Like, oh, we’ll try to stop this bad practice and lost. We actually, 3 weeks ago, at the Public Interest Legal Foundation, got mail voting declared unconstitutional across the entire state. It was in Delaware. Now you might say, what good is Delaware? Look, we have to get a beachhead somewhere, right? We have to start winning cases, and not bringing bad cases, because bad cases waste all your money, for starters, and they create bad precedent. It’s a double whammy. You’ve sunk money into a lawsuit that’s creating bad precedent, a bad idea for philanthropy.
So we found out in Delaware that the state constitution does not allow mail voting. Well, what’s the constitution to the legislature, right? So they pass a mail voting law. Law doesn’t really matter these days. So we sued Delaware and we wanted the trial at court level, and we had mail voting declared unconstitutional at the trial court level. Of course, you know what happens next. The attorney general appealed it to the Supreme Court of Delaware. And not only did the Supreme Court of Delaware, in our case, throw out mail voting statewide; it also threw out same day registration as violating the state constitution. [Applause].
I want to talk about Florida briefly because that’s been one of the themes this week, or the last couple days, about how good Florida is. The Public Interest Legal Foundation started looking at — we did a big FOIA dredge — election crimes that county election officials found and referred to the county prosecutors. Now, most of you, when I’d say “Possible election crimes found by county election officials referred to county prosecutors,” you all probably are thinking, oh, someone must have gotten prosecuted, right, by the county prosecutor. Well, laying back outside here in the materials is a report we did called Safe Harbor. We found 156 referrals by election officials. You know how many of those were prosecuted?
Audience Member: Zero.
Christian Adams: Zero, thank you. Someone’s reading our reports. Not one single case in Florida. So what do I do? I fly down to Tallahassee and I meet with Governor DeSantis in his office and discuss this. And the governor proposes a solution and that is to have a state prosecution office. And this governor says “We need a state prosecution office because the counties aren’t doing it,” and he gets a law passed through the Florida legislature. And they just prosecuted someone last week who voted in Florida and Alaska, and that’s one of many. [Applause]. So it’s a great example how to fix elections. When somebody drops the ball, like county prosecutors, you get a state solution.
Let me move to that good one, child voting. This is all under the fixing elections, the good side. We’re suing the State of Maryland — or I’m sorry — the County of Howard for allowing the children to vote because number one, if you go to a religious school, you aren’t allowed to vote for this child school board member — First Amendment, right? If you are like Clint Eastwood in the movie El Camino, remember that movie? He like lived in Detroit — I love to use it, that movie, for this example.
So Clint Eastwood, if he lived in Howard County, he would get to vote for two at-large school board members in one district. That obnoxious kid who lives next-door to him, who goes to the high school, who’s 18 — some high school kids are 18 — they get to vote for the same two at-large in one district, but they also get their child school board members. They get four seats and Clint Eastwood gets three. That’s a Reynolds v. Sims violation under the 14th Amendment. You can’t have unequal representation with similarly-situated people. So we’re suing in federal court to shut down child voting in Maryland. [Applause].
Alien voting, New York City, Public Interest Legal Foundation represents Deroy Murdock from Fox News. You guys probably have seen Deroy, he’s a solid conservative, and three other Black New York City residents. Some are progressives, by the way, they’re descendants of slaves. And they say, hey, wait a minute, you’re going to let a Chinese national vote? Like my relatives have been here for 200 years, this isn’t right. And so we’re representing them in federal court to have alien voting struck down because it was passed with a racial intent.
What does that mean? When this law passed, all these Hispanic activists were saying, “We’re sick of seeing white faces. We want to raise up the power of the brown constituents.” They were talking in crazy racial terms to pass alien voting laws. And so we alleged that’s a violation of the 15th Amendment.
The last bit of good news on fixing the elections relates to poll monitoring, poll officials. In the last 2 years, there’s been a surge in getting people out to participate as government poll officials. That’s where the power is, and you’ve seen this on elections with good candidates for Secretary of State going out there, people signing up to monitor polls and so forth. That’s part of the fix of elections. So I guess you’re probably wondering, which is going to outweigh, the witches’ brew or all of these solutions. And I’m here to tell you — and I could answer election administration questions till the cows come home. It’s an ongoing battle; it’s no different than the other existential fights we have with the left in this space.
And I want to close by just mentioning one danger zone. I litigate in court. I was in Pennsylvania with dead registrations. We have a case against Pennsylvania, which we settled. They had 25,000 dead people on the rolls and we built a database that allows us to see this, so I won’t bore you with the details. But we found 25,000 dead people on the rolls. We actually found some of them who registered after death, which I had never run into — (Laughter) — seriously, and I’ll get back to that in a second.
And so we’re in federal court in the middle district of Pennsylvania, and the defendant, Pennsylvania Secretary of State, is saying, “Your Honor, the Public Interest Legal Foundation has submitted evidence that people are registering after death,” that can’t be right. And I was sitting there going, oh, my gosh, it really can’t be, right?. Like I didn’t say that, but I was nervous about the evidence. I thought, how does this happen, how does someone register after death? And by golly, it was happening.
And a lady, for example, named Judith Presto registered in 2020 to register to vote in Pennsylvania when she had died in 2013. And because of our data, finding this insane fact that I had never seen before, her husband was arrested for registering after she died ahead of the 2020 election. [Applause]. But it just shows you — and I had been in this space for 20 years — the insidious nature of the other side, right? Like that’s a new one on me, I had never encountered post-death registration.
But I want to — when I was in that court argument, I want to leave you with this danger zone. We cannot say every time we lose an election, that it was stolen. There has to be evidence, real evidence, because if I have to go to court the next time, that judge is going to think I’m one of these crazy people, like that judge did, by the way, because he thought that evidence was a mistake. But it turned out to be true that people were registering after death.
So the only cautionary note I will leave you with without — otherwise, I would not do any service for you today. And that is to just realize that we have a risk of ruining our ability when there actually is fraud, to be taken seriously. And if we aren’t taken seriously when there is fraud, then we’ll never be able to fix it.
So thank you very much. The Public Interest Legal Foundation is a C3, many of you support it. Thank you, thank you, thank you. And I’ll take any questions Mike has time for. [Applause].
Male Speaker: We have time for just a couple of quick questions. I’m going to go to Kenneth because I didn’t get her for the last panel.
Audience Member: Good morning.
Christian Adams: Good morning.
Audience Member: Getting back to mail-in ballots, one thing you didn’t mention, and maybe that’s because I have it wrong — let’s use Wyoming as an example. I vote 45 days before Election Day and somewhere between that time and Election Day, I die. My vote is still counted, isn’t it?
Christian Adams: It is a state-by-state variation and also a variation on how effective the administrative officials are to catch that. In many cases, it will be counted because nobody figures out that you died. That is one of the problems with mail voting, in addition to all the others, that ballots are being cast for people who died after they mailed the ballot in, for sure.
Audience Member: So Alaska has ranked voting and you said that Nevada just passed it by referendum?
Christian Adams: Yes, and Maine also has it too. It cost the Republicans a congressional seat a couple years ago.
Audience Member: And so this is just — and did it happen the same way in Alaska?
Christian Adams: Alaska, it’s funny, I think — [stop] me, Larry. I know Anchorage passed it. The left — this is a great illustration of how the left operates. They got a beachhead in Anchorage to pass it for city council, and then they normalized it. Oh, look, we do it in Anchorage, let’s do it for the state. And it’s like child voting, let’s normalize it in Howard County. And so Alaska moved to it, I believe, through the state legislature, if I’m not mistaken. And James O’Keefe, one of the things he didn’t show you on those — I love those videos by the way, I do, I just love it. I need to come to every single Restoration we’re going to see James O’Keeffe’s videos. Lisa Murkowski’s staff admitted that they got ranked choice voting passed to get her reelected.
Audience Member: So the only way we’re going to get rid of it is by referendum the other way.
Christian Adams: I am toying with a legal theory, calling it vote denial. That hasn’t been brought yet and is going to be brought in just the right place on just the right tone. But I think the people who get kicked out of the early voting in the ranked choice, like the ones who like lost their — remember the first people who — it’s really complicated, it drives me crazy to try to explain it. The people who didn’t get to vote for the last two got vote denial, that’s my theory.
Audience Member: (Inaudible).
Audience Member: A quick question —
Christian Adams: Yes.
Audience Member: — was the 2020 election stolen? And evaluate the reality of 2000 mules.
Mules? Okay. I’m going to skip the 2000 mules part because I haven’t seen it. So I did try to give you the answer about stolen in my speech, and what I tried to emphasize was the word “stolen” is maybe an oversimplification. They changed the rules through Covid litigation and they poured Zuck Bucks into the gap. Now, is that stolen? I leave it to you how to apply that verb. I think that an atmosphere, a sophisticated transformation took place using the courts, using billionaire money to change the outcome. Now, I will also — I will submit that we have to go forward on this, meaning we have to win elections in the future, and we’re never going to get the public on our side with whatever answer we come up with about stolen. The die is cast on that issue. Now, I think it was manipulated beyond description using Covid and private money to alter the outcome. You can judge for yourself whether Christian says that’s stolen.
Audience Member: (Inaudible).
Audience Member: Thanks so much, Christian, great. I wanted to ask, okay, you can’t privately fund these public elections, but now you’ve got $370 billion of supposedly — what is it called — Inflation Reduction Act for Climate Change handled by John Podesta, who doesn’t — a great climate change expert. That’s 1,000 times the 400 million of Zuck Bucks. Is this going to be the new federally-funded Zuck Bucks?
Christian Adams: Yes, what Nina is referring to is the sovereigntization of the Zuck Bucks model, okay? And this is a harder one to fight because there’s lots of congressional statutes that say it’s one of the jobs of the federal government to register people to vote. This is in the NVRA, the National Voter Registration Act, Motor Voter or the Voting Rights Act, things like that. This is a great example. Like so many speakers this weekend have said we need to take back control of the administrative state and shut this stuff down, right?
When I was in the voting section at the Justice Department, it was intolerable, the idea that we would’ve been a partisan entity to try to get certain demographics to vote, okay? We just stayed above that, believe it or not. So I think the answer is you got to get control of the administrative state on day one and rip that stuff out. [Applause].
Male Speaker: Okay. [Barry Wolf] is going to get the last question. Then I’m going to have David Goldman come up. He’ll speak right away and then we go to lunch after David Goldman.
Audience Member: Right. Thanks for all the work that you do, first of all.
Christian Adams: Thank you.
Audience Member: You’ve done a great job. [Applause].
Christian Adams: Thanks.
Audience Member: My big question is being a first generation born American, I really cherish the right to vote. And to think that people that are not citizens of America can vote is disgusting to me. What can we do to change that immediately? [Applause].
Christian Adams: Well, I’ve got to win this case in New York City. We’ve got — no one has ever defeated this idea of alien voting in court. So the lawyers working on this case — which I didn’t give them enough credit or any credit — my lawyers are like the best election lawyers in the country. They are very focused on winning this case because we have to do it. Now on the broader issue, I’m going to give you the best argument for alien voting, not that I agree with this, I’m just trying to help you understand. They drive our roads, they go to our schools, they call our police, why shouldn’t they have a say?
Okay. We have to say citizenship means something. The word “American” means something that we’re all in the ship of state that we have invested. And those aliens who are going to get the right to vote can go back to Beijing or Sierra Lanka and they’re gone. It’s foreign influence in our elections of the worst sort. So I think we just have to — guys, this is not a freak issue. I’m telling you, this is coming, this idea of alien voting and we have to — because once that happens, it’s lights out. Seriously, it’s lights out. So thank you for that question. [Applause].